Those zany Canadians are at it again! Yesterday, the Canadian government announced that it will invest almost $47 million (Canadian) over the next five years in a cannabis education and awareness campaign.
According to a press release, the campaign will include “factual and evidence-based information on the health and safety risks of cannabis use and drug-impaired driving. The campaign will build on ongoing social media efforts, advertising and interactive events to engage youth on the facts.”
The goal of the campaign is to provide Canadians, especially young adults and youth, with clear factual information so that they understand how cannabis could affect them. A critical part of the initiative is to equip parents and teachers with factual evidence-based scientific information so that they can have meaningful discussions with young Canadians about the risks of cannabis use, especially drug-impaired driving. To that end, this fall, Public Safety Canada will launch an initiative to inform citizens about the dangers of drug-impaired driving.
Because medical cannabis is legal nationwide in Canada (and recreational use is soon to follow) making an investment in cannabis education and awareness makes sense. An informed and educated public ought to reduce some of the anxiety and possible dangers associated with cannabis use.
Perhaps, the US ought to follow Canada’s lead and make similar investments to educate the American public about medical and recreational cannabis use. At present, the amount of misinformation far outweighs the facts. This is extremely troubling since tens of millions of Americans are currently regular cannabis users.
In a previous blog post I wrote that several community colleges and lesser know universities were offering summer and/or continuing education classes about cannabis. While these course offerings were impressive, most were community-based and specifically designed to support local cannabis growers and the emerging cannabis business in these locales.
More recently, however, several major universities including Ohio State University, the University of Washington, the University of Vermont and the University of California-Davis announced that they will offer courses designed to provide students and healthcare professionals with an understanding of the physiology, medical and legal implications of cannabis use.
And, quite surprisingly, Louisiana State University has entered into a private agreement with a Las Vegas-based biopharmaceutical pharmaceutical company GB Sciences to cultivate and supply cannabis for disease indications that the company plans to treat including chronic pain, arthritis, cardiovascular problems, asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. While LSU entered into this agreement, it is not clear whether or not it relationship with GB Sciences may affect its sources of federal funding because cannabis is still illegal at the federal level.
Nevertheless, it is becoming abundantly clear that academia sees an opportunity to get into the cannabis business one way or the other. Below is a sampling of the cannabis courses and seminars that are currently being offered.
The University of Vermont offers a medical marijuana and cannabis certification course for clinicians who want the latest information regarding medical cannabis and possible healthcare applications of the plant.
The Moritz College of Law at Ohio State University offers a seminar style course on the legalization of cannabis that will examine the social and historical backdrop of intoxicant prohibition, and assess the legal reforms and political debates now having an impact on the control and regulation of marijuana distribution and use.
The University of Washington offers a course for healthcare professionals on the use of medical cannabis to treat chronic pain.
The University of California-Davis will offer a course to biology majors that will cover the biology of cannabis and cannabinoids as well as their physiological effects in multiple systems, underlying mechanisms and therapeutic values. It also will survey the history of cannabis use, cover the endocannabinoid system and discuss potential medical targets for cannabis and their relative effectiveness.
Finally, there is a big push at University of California at Los Angeles to create a research center to study the medicinal effects of cannabis on a variety of disease indications.
- http://cannabisscienceblog.com/2017/06/15/69/ accessed September 25, 017
- https://www.businessreport.com/article/lsu-finalizes-medical-marijuana-agreement-gb-sciences/ accessed September 25, 2017
- http://learn.uvm.edu/com/program/cannabis-science-and-medicine/ accessed September 25, 2017
- http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/academics/course-explorer/category/criminal-law/ accessed September 25, 207
- http://adai.uw.edu/mcacp/ accessed September 25, 2017
- http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/physiology/ accessed September 25, 2017
- http://dailybruin.com/2017/05/23/editorial-ucla-must-build-marijuana-research-center-study-effects-of-legalization/ accessed September 25, 2017
There is growing anecdotal evidence that cannabis and certain phytocannabinoids may be helpful when treating persons suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). For those who may not know, PTSD is a state of mind activated by either witnessing or experiencing a shocking, frightening or horrifying episode. Many war veterans as well as sexual assault victims and others may experience PTSD at some point in their lives. At present, PTSD is a qualifying medical condition in most states where medical cannabis is legal (1).
While cannabis is fast becoming the “go to” treatment for patients with PTSD, there is currently a dearth of scientific evidence to support its effectiveness. To that point, the results from a retrospective analysis showed that only 1 in 5 studies involving cannabis and PTSD showed a small but statistically meaningful decline in PTSD symptoms for patients who used cannabis (2). Moreover, older studies suggested that cannabis use may reduce the effectiveness of conventional treatments for PTSD and may be associated with poorer clinical outcomes (1, 3).
While there is conflicting evidence about the effectiveness of cannabis as a treatment for PTSD, there is general agreement among PTSD researchers that there have not been enough controlled clinical studies to provide conclusive evidence about the benefits or harm of plant-based cannabis preparations as PTSD treatments (4). At present there are two ongoing randomized trials and 6 other studies examining outcomes of cannabis use in patients with PTSD (4). These studies are expected to be completed within 3 years.
By then, there will hopefully be a conclusive answer!
- Wilkinson ST, Stefanovics E, Rosenheck RA. Marijuana use is associated with worse outcomes in symptom severity and violent behavior in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Sep; 76(9): 1174-80.
- https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-cannabis-pain-ptsd-idUSKCN1AU2DG Accessed August 16, 2017
- Manhapra A, Stefanovics E, Rosenheck R. Treatment outcomes for veterans with PTSD and substance use: Impact of specific substances and achievement of abstinence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Sep 25. pii: S0376-8716(15)01664-6. [Epub ahead of print]
- http://annals.org/aim/article/2648596/benefits-harms-plant-based-cannabis-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-systematic-review Accessed August 16, 2017