The Dangers of Dabbing

Dabbing or “doing a dab” is a new method of Cannabis consumption that is growing in popularity.   The reason why dabbing Cannabis concentrates is preferable to smoking Cannabis flower is a reduction in the number of inhalation to achieve desired effects, increased potency and longer lasting effects (Raber et al).  While dabbing is gaining in popularity (mainly among recreational users (1), there may be some hidden safety issues  and health concerns with the practice.

Concentrated Cannabis products are prepared by a variety of different methods (Fig 1).

Fig. 1.  Different types of Cannabis concentrate preparation (from Raber et al.[1])

While dry and water-based extraction methods have been traditionally used to make concentrates like fief, hash and others, solvent-based extractions are increasingly being used to make Cannabis concentrates. Most solvent-based concentrates are made by extraction of plant material with organic solvents such as isopropanol, acetone  hexane and others.  Unfortunately, these solvents are toxic and carcinogenic (can cause cancer). Often, residual solvent residues are found in concentrates and ought to be a health concern for Cannabis users.

Likewise, liquid gas-based extractions that use low boiling hydrocarbon gases such as butane and propane to make Cannabis concentrates  are popular.  Because pressure or cooling of these solvents is required, there is a very good possibility of catastrophic explosions and fires if these extractions are performed by unskilled persons (2).  Also, another concern with liquid gas extractions is the quality of the solvent that is used.  Frequently, these solvents are industrial grade,  not pure and may contain lubricating oils which can end up in the concentrate.  Finally, like chemical extraction methods, high levels of residual solvent used in the liquid gas extraction may be present the final product which can be harmful to the end user.

Because of the possible safety and health consequences, chemical Cannabis extraction is illegal in California (3).  Instead, many extracts are produced by using compressed CO2 as the extraction solvent–thereby avoiding the use of flammable and toxic chemical solvents.

Recently, Raber et al. (1)  analyzed 57 Cannabis concentrates available in the California Cannabis marketplace.  Over 80% of these concentrates was contaminated either by residual solvents or pesticides.

The take home message? While dabbing offers a longer-lasting more intense Cannabis experience, dabbers may be exposing themselves to short-term safety issue and possible long-term health consequences.


  1. Raber JC, Elzinga S, Kaplan C. Understanding dabs;contamination concerns of cannabis concentrates and cannabinoid transfer during the act of dabbing. J. Toxicol. Sci. 2015; 40:797-803
  2. Jensen G, Bertelotti, R, Greenhalgh,  Palmieri T,  Maguina P.  Honey oil burns; a growing problem.  J. Burn Care Res.  2015; 36:34-37
  3. Monzingo, J. Making butane hash a lethal mix in home drug labs. 2014 accessed June 29, 2017

What is Dabbing and Why Is It So Popular?

Dabbing is a relatively  new method of delivery that involved placing a small amount of Cannabis extracts or oils—a dab—onto a heated surface (usually titanium or quartz and known as a “nail”) and vaporizing it on contact. Like vaporization, cannabinoids pass directly from the lungs to the bloodstream and produce immediate effects.  It is important to note, that dabbing can accommodate only Cannabis extracts or oils not actual Cannabis flower or plant material.

Dabbing requires a delivery device  colloquially  known as a “dab or oil rig” (Fig. 1)

Fig 1.  A dab rig.  Source: You Tube Video

In a recent paper entitled “Tracking Dabbing Using Search Query Surveillance: A Case Study in the US” Zhang et al. (1) found, that based on the volume of Google searches from  2004-2015, dabbing is rapidly growing in popularity among US Cannabis users (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2.  National trends for dabbing-related Google searches in the US, 2004-2015. (from Zhang et al)

The researchers also found a coincidental increase in the number of searches associated with e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; Fig. 2)

The average dabbing searches were significantly higher in states in which medical and recreational Cannabis were legalized as compared with states with only medical Cannabis legalization ( P=.02)  [Fig. 3].

Fig. 3.   Map of raw searches for dabbing in the US, 2004-2015. (from Zhang et al)

While it is not clear why dabbing has become increasingly popular, it is likely that this delivery methods offers Cannabis users with doses that are higher in delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids.  Interestingly, the authors suggest that dabbing surpassed Cannabis edibles and smoking in the middle of 2013 as the preferred alternative form of Cannabis consumption.

Despite its growing popularity, dabbing is not without risk.  This will be the subject of another post!


  1. Zhang Z, Zheng X, Zeng, DD, Leischow S. Tracking dabbing using search query surveillance: a case study in the United States.  J. Med Internet Res. 2016; 18:e252.

Optimizing Cannabis Delivery

The plethora of therapeutic benefits offered by Cannabis has largely been attributed to a class of naturally-occurring, plant-derived chemicals terpenophenolic compounds known as phytocannabinoids (1, 2). Over 60 pharmacologically-active cannabinoids have been identified to date (3).

While inhalation (smoking and vaporization) and ingestion are the most common routes of administration of Cannabis products but other routes including rectal, sublingual, transdermal, ophthalmic, intrathecal and intravenous routes have been used (4).


Historically, smoking is the most common and easiest method for Cannabis delivery. Scientifically-speaking, smoking is inhalation of smoke produced by combustion of the Cannabis flower or concentrated forms of Cannabis. Smoking allows users to immediately feel Cannabis’ effects because inhaled smoke containing cannabinoids like THC, CBD and others (2) passes directly from the lungs into the bloodstream.  These blood-borne molecules instantaneously bind to Cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2 (6, 7) and mediate the various psychoactive and therapeutic effects of Cannabis.


Vaporization involves heating Cannabis or concentrates//extracts to temperatures slightly lower than combustion. This technique causes cannabinoids and other molecules found in Cannabis to reach their individual boiling points (which are lower than their combustion points) and vaporize in the absence of combustion (8). By avoiding combustion, the toxic byproducts generated by smoking Cannabis are greatly reduced and the effective dose of Cannabinoids are enhanced (combustion destroys a larger percentage of cannabinoids as compared with vaporization). Like smoking, vaporized Cannabis passes directly from the lungs into the bloodstream and its effects are felt almost immediately.


Dabbing is a new method of delivery that involved placing a small amount of Cannabis extracts or oils—a dab—onto a heated surface (usually titanium or quartz and known as a “nail”) and vaporizing it on contact.

Like vaporization, cannabinoids pass directly from the lungs to the bloodstream and produces immediate effects. It is important to note, that dabbing can accommodate only Cannabis extracts or oils not actual Cannabis flower or plant material.

While becoming increasingly popular, dabbing can be dangerous if the right Cannabis extraction methods and appropriate equipment are not used.

Oral Delivery

Oral delivery of Cannabis and its products usually involves eating. Unlike smoking, it can take up to 2 hours or more to experience the effects of ingested Cannabis because cannabinoids are slowly absorbed into the bloodstream during digestion. Also, when ingested, Cannabis is metabolized by the liver cytochrome system and Δ-9-THC (Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol) is converted to 11-hydroxy-THC, a more potent form of THC (9).

Oral delivery of Cannabis can include edibles (brownies, cookies, cakes, candy or fruit snacks), Cannabis oil/extract capsules and Cannabis-infused beverages.

Other oral delivery routes include sublingual delivery (under the tongue) or oromucosal sprays. Cannabis tinctures are frequently used for sublingual delivery and extracts are frequently delivered via the oromucosal route. Unlike ingestion, Cannabis products delivered via the sublingual or oromucosal routes are quickly delivered to the bloodstream and offer immediate effects.

Topical/Transdermal Delivery

Whereas other methods of Cannabis delivery offer systemic (body wide) effects, topical application of Cannabis salves, balms and creams generally offer more localized action (although high enough doses and repeated use of these products can sometime lead to systemic effects). These products are useful to treat arthritis, chapped skin, eczema, minor burns, muscle soreness, sunburns, swellings, joint pain, and tendonitis

Topical delivery is becoming more widespread for persons who use Cannabis for medical rather than recreational purposes. Currently, Cannabis developers are experimenting with controlled-dosage transdermal patches to treat persons with chronic illnesses (10, 11).

Cannabis Suppositories

Other Cannabis delivery method involves rectal suppositories.  Like smoking, vaporization and sublingual/oromucosal delivery, rectally-delivered Cannabis extracts/oils are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream via the colon and provide long lasting effects. Albeit not the most appealing or dignified delivery methods, Cannabis suppositories are effective.


  1. Alexander A, Smith PF, Rosengren RJ. (2009) Cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer. Cancer Letters 285(1):6-12.
  2. Aizpurua-Olaizola O, Omar J, Navarro P, Olivares M, Etxebarria N, Usobiaga A. (2014) Identification and quantification of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. plants by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 406(29):7549-7560.
  3. Gerra G, Zaimovic A, Gerra ML, et al. (2010) Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists. Recent patents on CNS drug discovery 5(1):46-52.
  4. .Bowles DW, O’Bryant CL, Camidge DR, Jimeno A. (2012) The intersection between cannabis and cancer in the United States. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 83(1):1-10.
  5. Aizpurua-Olaizola O, Omar J, Navarro P, Olivares M, Etxebarria N, Usobiaga A. (2014) Identification and quantification of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. plants by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 406(29):7549-7560.
  6. Elphick MR, Egertova M. (2001) The neurobiology and evolution of cannabinoid signaling. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 356(1407):381-408.
  7. Grotenhermen F. (2005) Cannabinoids. Current Drug Targets CNS And Neurological Disorders 4(5):507-530.
  8. Hartman RL, Brown TL, Milavetz G, Spurgin A, Gorelick DA, Gaffney G, Huestis MA. (2015 ) Controlled Cannabis Vaporizer Administration: Blood and Plasma Cannabinoids with and without Alcohol Clin Chem.;61(6):850-69
  9. Newmeyer MN, Swortwood MJ, Barnes AJ, Abulseoud OA, Scheidweiler KB, Huestis MA Free and Glucuronide Whole Blood Cannabinoids’ Pharmacokinetics after Controlled Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users: Identification of Recent Cannabis Intake (2016) Clin Chem. 62(12):1579-1592
  10. Accessed June 27, 2017
  11.  Accessed June 27, 2017

Cannabis Possesses Antibacterial Properties Against MRSA

There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that Cannabis can be used to treat a wide variety of symptoms associated with chronic illnesses and conditions.   That said, the findings of Giovanni et al in a paper entitled “Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure-Activity Study” (1) suggest that several cannabinoids may be useful to treat infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria including MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus).

The results from this study showed that five major cannabinoids including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC),
cannabigerol (CBG), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and cannabinol (CBN) showed potent antibacterial action against 6 clinically-relevant strains of MRSA. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these compounds ranged from 0.5 µg/ml to  2 µg/ml  (Table 1)

Table 1. MIC (µg/ml) of Cannabinoids Against Drug Resistant Strains of S. aureus (adapted from Reference 1)

Cannabinoid SA-1199B RN-4220 XU212 ATC5923 EMRSA-15 EMRSA-15
CBD 1 1 1 0.5 1 1
CBC 2 2 1 2 2 2
CBG 1 1 1 1 2 1
THC 2 1 1 1 2 0.5
CBN 1 1 1 1 1

While the mechanism of action of cannabinoids against MRSA remains unknown, the results of this study suggest that additional studies ought to be carried out to determine whether or not cannabinoids may be useful to combat infections caused by multidrug resistant strains of bacteria.


  1. Appendino A, Gibbons S, Giana A, Pagani A Grassi G,Stavri M,Smith E Rahman M. Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A structure-activity study J. Nat. Prod. 2008: 71:1427-1430

Companies Developing Cannabis-Derived Pharmaceuticals

There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that extracts containing multiple cannabinoids or a single cannabinoid can be developed as a pharmaceutical product to treat specific therapeutic indications.  There are a small number of companies that have announced their intentions in this space.  Rumor has it that many major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are quietly evaluating this business opportunity, but are reluctant to disclose their forays into the Cannabis space for legal and public relations reasons.

Below is a partial list of companies who are actively involved in development of Cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals.

I will update the table soon as there are lots of new startups that have entered the space in the past 6 months or so!

Company Product Properties Indication(s)
AbbVie Marinol® (dronabinol) Synthetic Δ-9-THC Chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV); MS neuropathic pain; HIV/AIDS appetite stimulate
Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc Cesamet®


Synthetic Δ-9-THC Management of  nausea/vomiting
GW Pharma Sativex®


Mixture of extracts of cannabis plant containing two cannabinoids in 1:1 ratio, Δ-9-THC and CBD (cannabidiol) in 50% alcoholic solution ; oro-mucosal delivery (mouth spray) Neurologic and cancer-related pain; Spasticity in patients with MS
Epidiolex® CBD (cannabidiol) liquid extract from genetically-defined cannabis strain Orphan pediatric epilepsy; Dravet Syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
GWP42003 Not disclosed Ulcerative colitis
GWP42004 Not disclosed Type 2 diabetes
GWP42006 Cannabidivarin (CBDV) Adult epilepsy
Society for Clinical Research (Germany) Cannador® Oral capsule containing whole plant extract with standardized THC:CBD ratio of 2:1 Muscle stiffness; MS spasticity/pain; cachexia in cancer patients, post-operative pain management
Kannalife Not named Cannabis extract/semi-synthetic CBD (cannabidiol) Hepatic Encephalopathy
Aphios APH-080 Liposomal formulation of Δ-9-THC CINV; Appetite stimulant for HIV and cancer patients
APH-1305  CBG (cannabigerol) liposomal-oral delivery MS & other neuroinflammatory  neurodegenerative disorders
Cannabis Sciences CS-S/BCC-1 CBN (cannabinol) enriched extracts Oncology
CS-TATI-1 Plant extract Kaposi Sarcoma
Not Named CBN (cannabinol) plus other cannabinoids Anxiety, sleep disorders, Alzheimers disease
Medical Marijuana Sciences Not Named CBD (cannabidiol) extracts plus microencapsulation technology Brain and pancreatic cancer

Cannabinoids: Mechanism of Action and How They Work

Cannabinoids (endogenous, synthetic and phytocannabinoids) are thought to exert their physiological effects by interacting with CB1 and CB2, G-coupled protein cannabinoid receptors that are widely distributed and found throughout the body. (1-3)

CB1 receptors which constitute the most prevalent neurotransmitter system in the brain and central nervous systems (CNS) are primarily found in basal ganglia, hippocampus and cerebellum. (3) In contrast, CB2 receptors are found almost exclusively on cells of the immune system including T and B cells and mainly appear in tissues when there is cellular pathology. (4-6)

CB1 receptors are thought to be involved in the effects of Cannabis on appetite, mood motor function and neurocognition whereas CB2 receptors appear to be responsible for mediating the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Cannabis. (3-7)

Recent research suggests that certain cannabinoids may also interact with the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1(TRPV1) of the endovanilloid system, e.g, capsaicin receptors which are thought to modulate neuropathic pain and were recently shown to be involved in bone growth. (8)

The interactions between various ligands that bind to either CB1 or CB2 receptors are actively being studied to identify new Cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals.


  1. Elphick MR, Egertova M. (2001) The neurobiology and evolution of cannabinoid signalling. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 356(1407):381-408.
  2. Grotenhermen F. (2005) Cannabinoids. Current Drug Targets CNS And Neurological Disorders 4(5):507-530.
  3. Matsuda LA, Lolait SJ, Brownstein MJ, Young AC, Bonner TI.(1990) Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA. Nature 346(6284):561-564.
  4. Guindon J, Hohmann AG. (2008) Cannabinoid CB2 receptors: a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. British Journal of Pharmacology 153(2):319-334.
  5. Fernandez-Ruiz J, Pazos MR, Garcia-Arencibia M, Sagredo O, Ramos JA. (2008) Role of CB2 receptors in neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 286(1-2 Suppl 1):S91-96
  6. Anand P, Whiteside G, Fowler CJ, Hohmann AG. (2009) Targeting CB2 receptors and the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of pain. Brain Research Reviews 60(1):255-266.
  7. Pertwee RG, Ross RA. (2002) Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 66(2-3):101-121.
  8. Rahn EJ, Hohmann AG. (2009) Cannabinoids as pharmacotherapies for neuropathic pain: from the bench to the bedside. Neurotherapeutics: The Journal Of The American Society For Experimental Neurotherapeutics 6(4):713-737.

CBD: A Miracle Molecule?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychotropic cannabinoid found in Cannabis. It has been found to possess anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-emetic, muscle relaxing, anxiolytic, neuroprotective and anti-psychotic activity and reduces the psychoactive effects of THC. (1)

Unlike THC, the mode of action of CBD is not fully understood and it is thought to act via non-CB1 receptor mechanisms because it has low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors. (2)

Other studies suggest that CBD may be a CB1 receptor antagonist (3) and may also exerts its effects by stimulating the vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1) with efficacy similar to that of capsaicin (4) Also, CBD is thought to inhibit the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide (4) and may interfere with THC metabolism. (5) CBD is being evaluated as a possible treatment for epilepsy (6) and schizophrenia (7) and for its anti-tumorigenic effects. (8)


  1. Russo E, Guy GW. (2006) A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Medical Hypotheses 66(2):234-246.
  2. Jones NA, Hill AJ, Smith I, et al. (2010) Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo. The Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics 332(2):569-577.
  3. Zuardi AW, Shirakawa I, Finkelfarb E, Karniol IG.( 1982) Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects. Psychopharmacology 76(3):245-250.
  4. Bisogno T, Hanus L, De Petrocellis L, et al. (2001) Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: effect on vanilloid VR1 receptors and on the cellular uptake and enzymatic hydrolysis of anandamide. British Journal Of Pharmacology 134(4):845-852.
  5. Bornheim LM, Grillo MP. (1998) Characterization of cytochrome P450 3A inactivation by cannabidiol: possible involvement of cannabidiol-hydroxyquinone as a P450 inactivator. Chemical Research in Toxicology 11(10):1209-1216
  6. Cilio MR, Thiele EA, Devinsky O.(2014) The case for assessing cannabidiol in epilepsy. Epilepsia 55(6):787-790.
  7. Deiana S. (2013) Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: A New Light For Schizophrenia? Drug Testing and Analysis 5(1):46-51.
  8. Cridge BJ, Rosengren RJ. (2013) Critical appraisal of the potential use of cannabinoids in cancer management. Cancer Management and Research 5:301-313.

THC: The Latest Buzz

Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC is the main active cannabinoid in Cannabis and it is primarily responsible for Cannabis’ psychoactive properties.

It was the first cannabinoid to be isolated and identified (1964) in Cannabis resin and flowers (1) The concentration of THC found in Cannabis and its extracts can vary based on plant variety, cultivation techniques and type of preparation.

Pure THC can be derived from natural sources (extraction from cannabis plants) or produced synthetically. (2) The molecule acts as a partial agonist of CB1 receptors found in the CNS and CB2 receptors found on immune cells. (2)

While THC exhibits potent anti-inflammatory and anti-emetic properties, its development as therapeutic drug treatment has been hindered by its accompanying psychotropic effects. Nevertheless, in the past, dronabinol (Marinol) a synthetic THC and nabilone (Cesamet) a synthetic THC-mimetic received FDA approval as appetite stimulants and treatments for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) (3)  However, neither drug is widely prescribed.

Finally, negative psychotropic reactions and possible development of tolerance to THC could limit the long term clinical and therapeutic uses of the molecule.


  1. Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. (1965) A Total Synthesis of Dl-Delta-1-Tetrahydrocannabinol, the Active Constituent of Hashish. Journal of the American Chemical Society 87:3273-3275.
  2. Hazenkamp A, Gortenhermen F (2010) Review on clinical studies with cannabis   and cannabinoids 2005-2009. Cannabinoids 5(special issue):1-21.
  3. Bowles DW, O’Bryant CL, Camidge DR, Jimeno A. (2012) The intersection between cannabis and cancer in the United States. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 83(1):1-10.

Medical Marijuana Courses Are Now Available for College Credit!

Back in the day when I was going to graduate school in Madison, WI,  there was no such thing as medical Cannabis (although there was plenty of weed to go around).  But, as the line in that old Dylan song goes “the times they are a changin”

Late last month, the University of California-Davis announced that it would be joining Humboldt State University in offering undergraduate students a course entitled Physiology of Cannabis.  FYI, Humboldt State has been offering courses in medical Cannabis since 2012 (not surprising since the school is located in prime Cannabis cultivation territory).

According to UC-Davis officials the semester-long, three credit course will be aimed at biology students and will cover the endocannabinoid system, the effects of cannabinoids on the human body and the therapeutic value of Cannabis.

Likewise, Sonoma State University announced that it will be offering a one day symposium on March 11, 2017  to members of the healthcare industry in the Bay area. The symposium is entitled Medical Cannabis: A Clinical and it is intended as a workforce development course.  Nurses, physicians and pharmacists can get continuing education credit for the course. Topics that will be covered include the history of cannabis, an introduction to cannabinoids and terpenes, dosing and administration of cannabinoids, legal implication and other medical-related issues. The university is also planning a three day course on Cannabis regulatory issues later in the month.

While these courses are available, there is currently no undergraduate degree program in Cannabis science/medicine offered by any US university or college. That said, don’t be surprised if this major becomes a reality in States where medical and recreational Cannabis are legal.

Finding a Science Job in the Cannabis Industry

According to a recent report by the Cannabis website Leafly, America’s legal cannabis industry now supports more than 122,000 full-time jobs in 29 States and Washington DC. I

A recent article by Bruce Barcott entitled “How to Find a Job in the Cannabis Industry” offers some insights on the types of jobs that are available and how to land one.

He offered, like most industries the best way to land a job in the Cannabis industry is to network yourself into one. Also, working with a recruiting firm can be helpful.  Interestingly, recruiting firms and staffing companies that specialize in Cannabis jobs are popping up daily in many states where medical and recreational Cannabis are legal. However, before you take the plunge it is important to educate yourself to determine what is out there and whether or not you are a good fit for a Cannabis career.

So what do we know?  Most of the open jobs are in the Western states, California, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, Nevada and Arizona with a growing presence in Minnesota and Massachusetts. There are a smattering of jobs emerging in New York, Connecticut, Maryland  and Washington DC.  While 40 percent of open positions are specific to the Cannabis industry, roughly 60 are jobs that exist in other industries such as executive assistants, human resources specialists retail operations directors bookkeepers and staff accountants.That said, there are a number of Cannabis business operators who are looking for pharmaceutical sales representatives, or in horticulturalists from large commercial plant growing operations.

So question is: are there are any jobs in the Cannabis for the average Bio Job Blog reader?  The answer is YES!!!!!!  Here are a few examples: Laboratory chemist, operations manager, analytical chemist/production manager, software developer, food productions manager, and my favorite professional joint roller.  Of course there will be many more opportunities as the industry continues to grow (pun intended). That said, relocation is likely required but then again if you are qualified and possess the skills the company may offer a relocation package.  There is a ton of money being made in the industry!